When you take a loan from your 401(k), you’re essentially borrowing from yourself and repaying the funds, plus some interest, with after-tax dollars. The amount you withdraw isn’t taxed upfront, but the interest charged is. If you repay the loan on time, the interest will be added to your 401(k) balance once it is repaid. However, if you fail to repay the loan or leave your job before repaying it, the outstanding balance may be treated as a distribution, which means it will be taxed as income and may also incur an additional 10% early withdrawal penalty if you’re under age 59½.

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## Loan Limits and Withdrawal Penalties

A 401(k) loan is a way to borrow money from your own retirement savings account. You can use the money for anything you want, but you must repay the loan plus interest within a certain amount of time.

### Loan Limits

* The maximum amount you can borrow is typically 50% of your vested account balance, or $50,000, whichever is less.

* However, some plans allow you to borrow up to 100% of your vested account balance, or $100,000, whichever is less.

### Withdrawal Penalties

* If you withdraw money from your 401(k) before you reach age 59½, you may have to pay a 10% early withdrawal penalty.

* This penalty is in addition to any income taxes you may owe on the withdrawal.

* However, you can avoid the early withdrawal penalty if you use the money for a qualified reason, such as:

- Buying or building your first home
- Paying for college tuition and fees
- Medical expenses
- Disability
- Death of a family member

Loan Amount | Interest Rate | Repayment Term |
---|---|---|

$10,000 | 5% | 5 years |

$25,000 | 6% | 10 years |

$50,000 | 7% | 15 years |

## Understanding Income and Withholding

When you take out a 401k loan, you are essentially borrowing money from yourself. The money you borrow is not taxed when you take it out, but it is taxed when you repay it. This is because the IRS considers the repayment of a 401k loan to be income.

The amount of tax you will owe on your 401k loan repayment will depend on your income and withholding.

### Income

- Your income is the total amount of money you earn from all sources, including your salary, wages, tips, and self-employment income.
- When you take out a 401k loan, the amount of the loan is not included in your income.
- However, when you repay the loan, the amount of the repayment is included in your income.

### Withholding

- Withholding is the amount of money that your employer takes out of your paycheck for taxes.
- The amount of withholding depends on your income and withholding allowances.
- When you take out a 401k loan, the amount of the loan is not subject to withholding.
- However, when you repay the loan, the amount of the repayment is subject to withholding.

### How to Calculate the Taxes on Your 401k Loan Repayment

To calculate the taxes on your 401k loan repayment, you will need to know your income and withholding.

You can use the following formula to calculate the taxes on your 401k loan repayment:

`Taxes = (Income - Withholding) x Tax Rate`

The tax rate is the percentage of your income that is taxed.

### Example

Let’s say that you have a 401k loan of $10,000.

You repay the loan over a period of five years.

Your income is $50,000.

Your withholding is $10,000.

The tax rate is 25%.

Using the formula above, we can calculate the taxes on your 401k loan repayment as follows:

`Taxes = (50,000 - 10,000) x 0.25 = $10,000`

This means that you will owe $10,000 in taxes on your 401k loan repayment.

## Impact on Retirement Savings

Taking a loan from your 401(k) plan could have a significant impact on your retirement savings. Here are a few ways in which it can affect your savings:

**Reduced Investment Growth:**When you borrow from your 401(k), you are essentially taking money out of the market, which could potentially reduce your investment growth over time.**Loss of Tax-Deferred Savings:**Loan repayments are made with after-tax dollars, which means you will not receive the tax benefits of deferring your retirement savings until you withdraw them in retirement.**Shorter Savings Period:**Using a 401(k) loan can shorten the amount of time you have to save for retirement, as loan repayments reduce your contributions to the plan.**Early Withdrawal Penalties:**If you are under the age of 59½ and withdraw money from your 401(k) plan before you leave your job, you may have to pay a 10% early withdrawal penalty in addition to income taxes on the amount withdrawn.

Scenario | Impact on Retirement Savings |
---|---|

Taking a loan of $10,000 and repaying it over 5 years with 5% interest | Reduce investment growth by $1,250 and shorten savings period by 5 years |

Taking a loan of $20,000 and repaying it over 10 years with 6% interest | Reduce investment growth by $3,000 and shorten savings period by 10 years |

Well, there you have it, folks! Now you know the ins and outs of taxes on 401k loans. Remember, it’s always wise to consult a tax professional for personalized advice, but I hope this article has shed some light on the matter. Thanks for reading, and be sure to check back here for more money-saving tips and tricks. Keep smiling, and may your finances stay in the green!